Term 术语 Definition 定义
abeam
正横
In a line approximately at right angles to the ship's keel; also: the waist or middle part of the ship.
与船只龙骨基本垂直的一条线,即船的腰部或中间部分。
aberration of light
光行差 ;像差
In ASTRONOMY, the apparent displacement in position of a HEAVENLY BODY caused by the combination of the VELOCITY of light and that of an obs... more
In ASTRONOMY, the apparent displacement in position of a HEAVENLY BODY caused by the combination of the VELOCITY of light and that of an observer on the surface of the EARTH. Aberration of light due to the ROTATION of the EARTH on its AXIS is termed diurnal aberration. That due to the REVOLUTION of the EARTH around the SUN is termed annual aberration. In optics, failure of an OPTICAL SYSTEM to bring all LIGHT RAYS received from a point object to a single IMAGE POINT or to a prescribed geometric position. Spherical aberration is caused by RAYS from various zones of a LENS or MIRROR coming to FOCUS at different distances from the LENS or MIRROR. Chromatic aberration (or chromatism) is due to the differences in REFRACTION of the coloured RAYS of the SPECTRUM; those of each colour having a different FOCUS.
在天文学中,指光速及地面观测者的速度综合引起的天体位置视位移。由地球自转所引起的光行差,称为周日光行差(diurnal aberration),由地球公转引起的光行差,称周年光行差( annual aberration)。 在光学中,指光学系统未能将点状目标接收的全部光线变为单... more
在天文学中,指光速及地面观测者的速度综合引起的天体位置视位移。由地球自转所引起的光行差,称为周日光行差(diurnal aberration),由地球公转引起的光行差,称周年光行差( annual aberration)。 在光学中,指光学系统未能将点状目标接收的全部光线变为单一的像点或投射到预定的几何位置。若由球面反射镜或透镜来的光线到光轴的距离变化时,其焦距也跟着变化,则所产生的像差为球面像差(Spherical aberration );由于透镜材料使不同颜色的光线折射率不同而聚焦到不同的位置所产生的图像色纹称为色差(chromatic aberration)。
abrasion
磨损,磨蚀,冲蚀
The wearing away or rounding of surfaces by friction.
通过摩擦使表面磨损或光滑。
abscissa
横坐标
See COORDINATES: PLANE RECTANGULAR.
见plane rectangular coordinates(平面直角坐标)。
absolute accuracy
绝对精度
See ACCURACY: ABSOLUTE.
确定单要素或大地基准及大地坐标系中点的位置时,对所有误差的估算值。
absolute error
绝对误差
See ERROR.
相对于真值的绝对偏差(无需表示正负)。
absolute orientation
绝对方位
See ORIENTATION.
在摄影测量学中,确定立体模型或模型组的比例、置平,并根据地面控制点(在摄影测量仪器内)进行定向的过程。
absolute stereoscopic parallax
绝对立体视差
See PARAL­LAX.
在摄影测量学中,一对具有相同主距的航摄像片至其相应像底点距离的代数差。在水平面上平行于航摄基线测得,也称作水平视差(horizontal parallax)、线性视差(linear parallax)或左右视差(x-parallax)。
absorption: atmospheric
大气吸收
Transformation of RADIANT ENERGY into thermal, mechanical, electrical, etc. energy, by interaction with atmospheric constituents.
辐射能与大气成分相互作用转换成热能、机械能、电能等的现象。
abyssal
深海的,海底深处的,深渊
Belonging to the lowest DEPTHS of the OCEAN, generally below 3,700 METRES (2,000 FATHOMS).
海洋最深处,一般而言深度大于3700米(2000英寻)。
abyssal gap
深海裂隙,深海峡谷
A gap in a sill, ridge, or rise that lies between two abyssal plains.
在两个深海平原之间的海槛、海脊或海隆中的峡谷。
abyssal hills
深海丘陵
A tract of small elevations on the deep-sea floor.
一种位于深海海底处的小高地。
abyssal plain
深海平原
An extensive, flat, gently sloping or nearly level region at abyssal depths.
深海中的广阔、平坦的、缓慢倾斜或近似水平的区域。
acceleration
加速度
The rate of change of VELOCITY.
速度的变化率。
acceleration: angular
角加速度
The rate of change of ANGULAR VELOCITY.
角速度的变化率。
acceleration of gravity
重力加速度
The ACCELERATION of a freely falling body caused by the force of GRAVITY.
自由落体在重力作用下产生的加速度。
accidental error
偶然误差
See ERROR.
一种遵循随机定律的误差。也叫随机误差(random error )。
acclivity
上斜,向上斜坡,上升坡
An upward SLOPE of GROUND; as opposed to DECLIVITY.
地面向上的斜坡;反之为下斜坡(declivity)。
accommodation
调节
The faculty of the human eye to adjust itself to give sharp IMAGES for different object distances. In STEREOSCOPY, the ability of the eyes t... more
The faculty of the human eye to adjust itself to give sharp IMAGES for different object distances. In STEREOSCOPY, the ability of the eyes to bring two IMAGES into superimposition for stereoscopic viewing.
对于不同距离的物体,人眼通过自我调节获取清晰图像。在立体观测中,人眼具有将两个立体观测图像进行叠加的能力。
accretion
堆积 ,冲积
The gradual building up of LAND over a long period of time, solely by the action of the forces of nature, on a BEACH by deposition of water ... more
The gradual building up of LAND over a long period of time, solely by the action of the forces of nature, on a BEACH by deposition of water or air-borne material. Artificial accretion is a similar build-up of LAND by reason of an act of man. Also called aggradation.
海滩地带完全受自然力的作用(水或空气携带物质的沉积作用)长期逐步形成陆地的过程。人工堆积是由人类的行为构造的陆地。也称之为aggradation(淤积)。